Procedure: The participants were given one schema at the encoding stage and one schema at the retrieval stage, to see if they were influenced. In a later study, Anderson and Pichert () presented evidence for the effect of reader perspective on retrieval processes. Subjects who shifted to the alternate. Key Study: Anderson and Pichert () Aim: To investigate if schema processing influences both encoding and retrievalMethod: Highly controlled l.

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Subjects given a perspective either a burglar or a homebuyer prior to reading a story which describes a home and its contents, were required to recall information from the original perspective and later from the other perspective.

French and Richards explained this result in terms of schematic knowledge of roman numerals affecting memory retrieval.

Vesonder and George J.

Anderson and Pichert () – Mr. Yingling Social Studies

Preview 1 out of 2 pages. Students were allowed to take as much time as they wanted to read the story once.

However, encoding information at a specific level may influence the ability to retrieve the information. To what extent do cognitive an Demonstrating that information can be recovered by providing a different retrieval context is evidence of the influence of the processes active during retrieval Anderson and Pichert ; Anderson, Pichert and Shirey ; Pichert and Anderson The context condition is a replication of the procedure used in Anderson and Pichert which manipulates retrieval within subjects.


They have been to one meeting, and picher like the people in the club very much, but they noticed that everyone has a trendy, stylish bike. The results support the hypothesis, experts provide an average of 3. Anderson and Pichert demonstrate support of the retrieval hypothesis.

Finally, subjects completed a questionnaire gathering the expertise measures, asked what they believed the experimental hypotheses were, thanked for there participation, debriefed and awarded pichery. The edited idea units are either very important or related to the second retrieval cue, while the novice provides. The participants heard a story that was based on 72 points. Supported by lots of research to suggest schemas affect memory processes knowledge, both in a positive and negative sense.

There is also evidence of an interaction between the encoding and retrieval; encoding specificity for example.

Anderson and Pichert () by Matty Hickman on Prezi

The previous discussion indicates the degree of elaboration of the knowledge structures allows for the processes at either encoding or recall to influence recall. Larter”The Novice and the Expert: The other half of the participants kept the same schema. Alba, Joseph, Susan G. andeeson

It is not clear which develops first, the schema to interpret the experiences or vice versa. Reading time varied between 1. The editing performance of the novice does not vary between conditions.


The second hypothesis states that the edited idea units provided by the experts will be important to the second retrieval cue. Define strengths of schema theory: The assignment of importance anc relevance may be made at encoding or at retrieval.

To investigate if schema processing influences encoding and retrieval.

As there is no evidence of the encoding explanation, there can be no evidence of an interaction between encoding and retrieval. Explain how biological factors Implicit in the paradigms used in the study of either the pihert or the encoding processes, is the assumption that the processes are independent.

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Lockhart”Levels of Processing: There were four different types of bicycles mentioned in the story that fall into two general usage contexts; image related and functional. But the theory requires further research and refinements to overcome its limitations and uncover its unclear aspects.

Also, that the processes active at both encoding and retrieval are important for the expert.

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